|Written by Administrator|
|Thursday, 28 February 2013 14:07|
Magaalada Muqdisho maalmo kahor waxaa ka dhacday Dhacdo xanuun badan dad badana la yaabeen kadib markii Wiil dhalinyaro ah uu Jaceyl dartees midi af badan qoorta iska mariyay uu isku gowracay.
Thursday, 28 February 2013
Nin Jaceyl Dartiis Isku Gawracay Muqdisho (Fadlan Ha Daawan Hadii Aad Beer-Jilicsantahay Ama Aad Xaamilo Tahay)
Bruce Reynolds, who was the key planner behind the £2.6m Great Train Robbery in 1963, has died aged 81.
Reynolds evaded capture for five years, mainly spent overseas, but after returning to England was caught in 1968. He spent 10 years in jail.
The 15 men's haul from a mail train in Cheddington, Buckinghamshire, was a record at that time.
Train driver Jack Mills was struck over the head during the robbery and never worked again. He died in 1970.
The £2.6m haul from the Glasgow-to-London overnight mail train, which the gang brought to a stop by changing a signal to red on 8 August 1963, is equivalent to £40m in today's money.
Reynolds had used inside information on mail movements to plan the raid and 15 gang members, wearing helmets and ski masks, ran on board and made off with 120 bags of money.
Reynolds' son Nick said his father had died in his sleep in the early hours of Thursday.
"He hadn't been well for a few days and I was looking after him," he said.
"I really can't talk at the moment. I can confirm that he has passed away and he died in his sleep."Film consultant
Family friend John Schoonraad said Reynolds had had a "chest complaint".
He described Reynolds as a "lovely chap", and a changed man who no longer believed in crime.
"He said to me 'crime doesn't pay'. He's done his time, and he turned into a very nice man. I've always known him to be a real gentleman," said Mr Schoonraad.
Michael Biggs, the son of Reynolds's fellow Great Train Robber Ronnie Biggs, paid tribute to "a very intelligent man, educated and very loyal to his friends".
"Regardless of whatever mistakes Bruce made in his life, Bruce was a very, very kind person who was a true gentlemen who made many friends in his life," he told BBC Radio 5 live.
Mr Biggs, 38, said his father "showed a lot of emotion" and "there were tears" when he learned of Reynolds' death.
"Bruce was his oldest friend, a very dear friend," he said.
Following Reynolds' release from prison in 1978, life proved a struggle and he was jailed again in the 1980s for three years for dealing amphetamines.
In the late 80s he worked briefly as a consultant on a film about the robbery, Buster, and went on to publish The Autobiography of a Thief in 1995.Borstal
By then, he was living on income support in a south London flat supplied by a charitable trust.
Reynolds, the son of a trade union official at the Ford plant in Dagenham, east London, left school at 14 and worked as an accounts clerk, hospital laboratory assistant and cycle fitter.
It was not long before he was in trouble with the police and he was sent to borstal twice for theft.
After his national service in the Army, he returned to a life of crime and served four jail terms, mainly for breaking into shops.
In 1963, he joined forces with Biggs, Buster Edwards, Charlie Wilson and other gang members to carry out the Great Train Robbery.
Thousands of litres of whisky have been flushed down the drain by accident at a bottling plant in Dumbarton.
It is understood the mix-up happened at Chivas Brothers during the night shift on Tuesday while equipment was being cleaned.
Instead of draining away waste water, the workers on duty somehow flushed out thousands of litres of bulk whisky.
The smell was so strong that sewage workers reported it.
Chivas Brothers - which employs 600 workers at the plant and produces the world's second biggest-selling brand, Ballantine's - said it was investigating an accidental release of spirit.
A statement said: "We are currently investigating an accidental loss on the 26th of February at our Dumbarton site, where some spirit was released to the local water treatment plant.
"There has been no release of spirit to the River Leven or any other local water course. We have informed Scottish Water and all other relevant authorities."'Adverse impact'
A Scottish Water spokesman said: "Staff at our waste water treatment works were already aware of a problem and were working to identify the source when contacted by Chivas Brothers.
"Our trade effluent team have now visited the company to get an oversight into its failure investigation so that we can ensure all possible precautions are being taken to prevent a repeat.
"Discharging large volumes of alcohol into the sewer network can have an adverse impact on waste water treatment processes, particularly during dry, cold weather.
"We are continuing to closely monitor our Dumbarton waste water treatment works to ensure treatment has not been compromised."
The mummified heart of King Richard I has been analysed by forensic experts.
When the English monarch, nicknamed Richard the Lionheart, died in 1199 his heart was embalmed and buried separately from the rest of his body.
Its condition was too poor to reveal the cause of death, but the team was able to rule out a theory that he had been killed by a poisoned arrow.
The researchers were also able to find out more about the methods used to preserve his organ.
The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.
The medieval king became known as Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a courageous military leader.
He was central to the Third Crusade, fighting against the Muslim leader Saladin.
Although he ruled England, he spent much of his time in France, and was killed there after being hit by a crossbow during a siege on a castle.
After his death, his body was divided up - a common practice for aristocracy during the Middle Ages.
His entrails were buried in Chalus, which is close to Limoges in central France. The rest of his body was entombed further north, in Fontevraud Abbey, but his heart was embalmed and buried in the cathedral of Notre Dame in Rouen.
The remains of his heart - now a grey-brown powder - were locked away in a small lead box, and discovered in the 19th Century during an excavation.
But until now, they had not been studied in detail.
To find out more, a team of forensic specialists and historians performed a biological analysis.
Dr Philippe Charlier, a forensic scientist from Raymond Poincare University Hospital, in France, said: "We carried out exactly the same kind of analysis that we would perform on an exhumed body for forensic purposes.
"We did a microscopic examination, toxicological analysis and also a pollen analysis."
Time of death
The heart was too badly decomposed to confirm exactly how the king died - most historians believe gangrene or septicaemia from his wound would have been the cause.
Continue reading the main story
Dr Phillipe CharlierRaymond Poincare University HospitalOur toxicological analysis showed no presence of any arsenic ”
However, another, less widespread theory put forward in a medieval chronicle is that Richard I may have been killed by an arrow coated in poison.
But Dr Charlier said his tests revealed that this probably was not the case.
"Our toxicological analysis showed no presence of any arsenic or any other metals, so we haven't found any proof of any contamination during the end of Richard the Lionheart's life," he explained.
"We have no confirmation that he would have been poisoned: there is no argument for this."
The team found pollen in the sample, including grains from poplar and bellflower. This suggests that Richard I died at the end of April, May or the beginning of June, as these plants are in flower then. In the history books, his date of death is given as 6 April 1199.
The analysis also revealed much more about the techniques that were used to preserve his heart - providing an insight into medieval religious rituals.
Dr Charlier said: "The spices and vegetables used for the embalming process were directly inspired by the ones used for the embalming of Christ.
"For example, we found frankincense. This is the only case known of using frankincense - we have never found any use of this before. This product is really devoted to very, very important persons in history."
The heart, which was wrapped in linen, also had traces of myrtle, daisy, mint and possibly lime.
The scientists think these would have been used for their smell, to give the King an "odour of sanctity", which would be "similar to Christ".
They also found mercury, which would have been used stop the heart from decomposing.
Dr Charlier said that during the post-mortem, they used up as little material as possible.
He explained: "We wanted to conserve it for the future generations.
"These are not only samples, they are also human remains and we have to respect them."
Mark Ormrod, professor in history from the University of York, said the research was extremely interesting.
"That consciousness of using very high-quality herbs and spices and other materials that are much sought after and rare does add to that sense of it being Christ-like in its quality," he said.
"Medieval kings were thought to represent the divine on Earth - they were set apart form other lay people and regarded as special and different. So that treatment of the heart strikes me as being absolutely credible."
He added that it was rare to get a forensic insight into the remains of medieval kings - and that this study and the work done on the remains of Richard III, who was recently found buried under a car park in Leicester, were unusual.
He said: "Generally speaking, when human remains are found on consecrated ground, the church, the state and the law all prevent one from undertaking any scientific analysis of them, so the opportunities to do these kinds of things are very rare."
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Pope Benedict XVI has officially resigned, saying that he now "will simply be a pilgrim" starting his last journey on earth.
The pontiff, aged 85, was earlier flown by helicopter from the Vatican to his retreat at Castel Gandolfo, near Rome.
The college of cardinals, headed by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, is now in charge of the world's 1.2 billion Roman Catholics until a new pope is elected.
Benedict vowed "unconditional obedience and reverence" to his successor.
He stepped down after nearly eight years in office - the first pontiff to do so in 600 years.
Continue reading the main story'Pope emeritus'
A cardinal, who was inside the Clementine Hall of the Vatican to take his leave of Pope Benedict, told me it was one of those moments one can only describe as "electric with emotion".
He said he felt "the gratitude, the appreciation and the love that was flowing between the Pope and the cardinals".
But another Vatican insider admitted that the next pope has to continue the work started by Benedict to counter sexual abuse by clergy.
"Speaking as a Catholic priest myself", he told me, "it's something that blights our Church, that affects our whole role as priests in the Church.
"It's clear that there's a long way to go before healing occurs and before the whole issue is consigned to the past."
Benedict officially ceased to be the Pope at 20:00 local time (19:00 GMT).
The resignation was marked by the papal Swiss Guards stepping down from their posts at Castel Gandolfo to return to the Vatican. The protection of Benedict was taken over by Vatican police.
In his retirement, Benedict will wear a simple white cassock rather than his papal clothes, and swap his famous red shoes - the colour is symbolic of the blood of the early Christian martyrs - for brown.
His "Fisherman's Ring", the special signet ring which contains the Pope's name and is impressed to validate certain official documents, is expected to be destroyed along with the lead seal of the pontificate.
The German pontiff, who was born Joseph Ratzinger, will continue to be known as Benedict XVI, with the new title of "pope emeritus".
The long-time theologian is expected eventually to retire to a monastery on a hill inside Vatican City, with officials saying he will not be able intervene publicly in the papacy of his successor, though he may offer advice.
The conclave of 115 cardinals is expected to meet at the Vatican on Monday morning to start planning the election of the next pope.Joy and sadness
Earlier on Thursday, bells of St Peter's rang across the Vatican as Benedict boarded the helicopter for a short flight to Castel Gandolfo.
Before that, the pontiff was greeted for the last time by top officials in the Curia - the administrative body that runs the Holy See.
Benedict then appeared at a window overlooking the public square in Castel Gandolfo to bless a cheering crowd.
"Thank you very much for your friendship," Benedict said.
"I will simply be a pilgrim who is starting the last phase of his pilgrimage on this earth.
"Let's go forward with God for the good of the Church and the world."
Some in the crowd were in tears listening to what could be Benedict's final public words as pope.
"What a joy to see him, but how sad to think it is for the last time," local resident Giuseppina was quoted as saying by the AFP news agency.
In a final posting before his @Pontifex account was suspended and all its entries archived, Benedict tweeted: "Thank you for your love and support. May you always experience the joy that comes from putting Christ at the centre of your lives."
Continue reading the main story
Castel Gandolfo retreat
- The traditional lakeside summer home of the popes is a picturesque "castle town" in the Alban hills, 15 miles (24km) south-east of Rome
- The papal palace dates back to the 17th Century and its gardens occupy the site of a residence of the Roman Emperor Domitian
- Benedict XVI is expected to spend two months resting in the residence as his successor at the Vatican is chosen and installed
- He will have a staff of two secretaries and four women helpers, drawn from a Catholic lay organisation
- Vatican police officers will guard the former pope, who lost his Swiss Guards when his resignation took effect
The Vatican now enters the Sede Vacante - or period of transition between two pontificates.
Benedict's successor must focus on reforming the Vatican bureaucracy which has often been overly hesitant to react to the various crises which have arisen during Benedict's papacy, the BBC's David Willey reports from the Vatican.Beset by scandals
On Thursday morning, the Pope received the cardinals at the Vatican's Clementine Hall, warmly embracing Cardinal Angelo Sodano, who passed on best wishes on behalf of those gathered.
"Among you there is also the future pope to whom I promise my unconditional obedience and reverence," the pontiff said.
"The Church is a living being," he added, but it "also remains always the same".
In his public farewell speech on Wednesday, Benedict hinted at Vatican infighting.
His decision to resign has been openly criticised by Australia's top Catholic, Cardinal George Pell, who questioned his leadership skills.
The Church has been beset by scandals over sexual abuse by priests and leaked confidential documents revealing internal corruption and feuding.
An estimated 150,000 people packed into St Peter's Square on Wednesday to hear Benedict speak in his last address there.
A Serbian general sentenced to 27 years for crimes against humanity has been released on appeal.
Momcilo Perisic, who commanded the Yugoslav army during the wars in Bosnia and Croatia, was found guilty after a trial in 2011.
Judges in the Hague said Mr Perisic had not directed ethnic Serb forces in Bosnia to use military aid sent from Belgrade for the commission of crimes.
They ordered him to be released with immediate effect.
Judges in his appeal also ruled that he had not been in a position to discipline soldiers for shelling the Croatian capital, Zagreb.
In the 2011 trial he was convicted of aiding and abetting crimes, but acquitted of a direct role in the Srebrenica massacre.
"While Mr Perisic may have known of VRS [Serb Army of Republika Srpska, VRS] crimes, the Yugoslav Army aid he facilitated was directed towards the VRS's general war effort rather than VRS crimes," Theodor Meron, president of the appeals chamber at the tribunal in The Hague, said.
Mr Perisic had always insisted that he was not aware of or responsible for atrocities.
The BBC's Guy De Launey, in Belgrade, said that a twitch of an eye was all the response that Mr Perisic gave to the verdict.
Our correspondent adds that Mr Perisic's release might restore some faith in the tribunal's neutrality among people in Serbia.
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