Monday, 30 June 2014

Police hunt for crew in Sh80m heist

An armoured vehicle belonging to KK Security on display in a showroom on December 4, 2013. PHOTO | SALATON NJAU | FILE  NATION MEDIA GROUP

In SummaryA van belonging to KK Logistics, an arm of KK Securities that handles cash-in-transit, was found abandoned in MatharePolice sources said the armoured car was transporting cash from a bank in Westlands to the CBKADVERTISEMENTBy Nation Correspondent
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Police are searching for the crew of a security firm after an estimated Sh80 million they were transporting to Central Bank in Nairobi disappeared.

This is after a van belonging to KK Logistics, an arm of KK Securities that handles cash-in-transit, was found abandoned in Mathare area in Nairobi and the crew out of sight.

Police sources said the armoured car was transporting cash from a bank in Westlands to the CBK.


In 2010, a G4S cash-in-transit crew disappeared with more than Sh250 million in Mombasa, leaving the police escort stranded.

Another Sh24 million was stolen in a heist involving a G4S crew in Nairobi. The vehicle was later found abandoned in Nairobi’s Ngara area.

In the same year, some Sh25 million was lost after a G4S van went missing at Yaya Centre, Nairobi. The car was later found less than half a kilometre away, with its cargo missing.

In 2009, about Sh150 million was lost by G4S crew while in transit between JKIA and the Netherlands

The world's top 10 main battle tanks

The world's top 10 main battle tanks28 November 2013
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Since the Cold War main battle tanks (MBTs) have evolved from being simple and light to heavy, modernised and highly mobile, with advancements in weaponry and countermeasures. lists the top 10 main battle tanks in the world based on weaponry, mobility and protection.

Leopard 2A7+, Germany

The Leopard 2A7+ is a next generation main battle tank (MBT) revealed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) in 2010. The new version leverages the technology of the Leopard 2 MBT and has been adopted by the Bundeswehr (German Army) to conduct warfare in urban areas, as well as traditional military missions. The 2A7+ is also presently deployed in Afghanistan by Canada under Nato command.

The Leopard 2A7+ is armed with 120mm L55 smooth bore gun capable of firing standard Nato ammunition and new programmable 120mm HE-rounds. The tank integrates an FLW 200 remotely controlled light weapon station mounting a 7.62mm/ 12.7mm machine gun or a 40mm grenade launcher.

The passive armour modules attached to the tank offer all-round protection from anti-tank missiles, mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and RPG fire. The smoke grenade launchers on either side of turret conceal the tank from enemy observation. The MBT can be fitted with additional attachments, such as a mine plough, mine roller or a dozer blade for clearing mines and obstacles. This highly mobile tank has a maximum speed of 72km/h and cruising range of 450km.

Related suppliers: Ammunition and FuzesAbrams M1A2, United States of America

The Abrams M1A2 is a combat proven main battle tank developed by General Dynamics Land Systems, primarily for the US Army. The tank was designed based on the experience gained from the performance of M1A1 and incorporates new technologies to deliver superior firepower and mobility, making it one of the best battle tanks in the world.

The main gun of the tank is a manually loaded 120mm XM256 smooth bore cannon which can fire a range of Nato ammunition against armoured vehicles, infantry and low-flying aircraft. The tank is also armed with two 7.62mm M240 machine guns and a .50 cal M2 machine gun and can store 42 rounds of 120mm, 11,400 rounds of 7.62mm, 900 rounds of 50 calibre ammunition, 32 screening grenades and 210 rounds of 5.56mm ammo.

The Abrams M1A2 integrates heavy exterior composite armour and steel-encased depleted uranium armour at forward hull and turret to offer high level of protection to its crew. The tank has a cruising range of 426km and can travel at maximum speed of 67.5km/h.

Challenger 2, United Kingdom

Challenger 2 (CR2) is the main battle tank of the British Army and the Royal Army of Oman. The MBT was designed and manufactured by British Vickers Defence Systems (now BAE Systems) based on the Challenger 1 tank. Promoted as the world's most reliable main battle tank by its producers, the capabilities of Challenger 2 were proven during combat missions in Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq.

The 120mm L30 CHARM (CHallenger main ARMament) gun of the Challenger 2 provides primary fire power, while a C-axial 7.62mm chain gun and a turret mounted 7.62mm machine gun serve as secondary weapons. The tank can carry 50 Armour Piercing, Fin Stabilised, Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive squash heads (HESH) and Soke rounds, as well as 4,000 rounds of 7.62mm ammunition.

The second generation Chobham armour of the Challenger 2 offers a high-level of protection against direct fire weapons. The Perkins-Condor CV12 engine of the tank ensures a maximum on-road speed of 59km/h and off-road speed of 40km/h.

Related suppliers: Fire and Explosion ProtectionK2 Black Panther, South Korea

The K2 Black Panther (Korean New Main Battle Tank) is a modern MBT developed by Hyundai Rotem for the Republic of Korea Army (RoKA). The MBT is intended to offer high mobility, fire power and self-protection. The Black Panther is currently under production, with service entry scheduled for 2014.

The K2 Black Panther's primary weapon is a 120mm smoothbore gun, which can fire advanced kinetic energy ammunition and is equipped with autoloader for on the go ammunition loading, even in rough terrain. The secondary armament includes 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns.

The maximum speed of 70km/h and range of 450km make the K2 highly mobile in the battlefield. The tank incorporates composite armour and explosive reactive armour (ERA) for all-round protection against direct fire. The ammunition rack also employs blow-off panels to protect against explosions.

Merkava Mk.4, Israel

The Merkava Mark IV is the latest version of the Merkava range of main battle tanks built by MANTAK (Merkava Tank Office). The tank entered into service with the Israel Defence Forces in 2004 and is regarded as one of the best protected tanks in the world.

The Mk.4 is armed with a 120mm MG253 smoothbore gun capable of firing high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) and sabot rounds, as well as LAHAT anti-tank guided missiles. The 7.62mm coaxial and 12.7mm swivel-mounted machine guns and 60mm grenade launcher complement the fire power of the tank.

The Merkava Mk.4 is fitted with special spaced armour, sprung armour side skirts, an Elbit laser warning system and IMI in-built smoke-screen grenades. The Trophy active protection system aboard the tank protects the crew against advanced anti-tank missiles. The tank moves at a maximum speed of 64km/h.

Related suppliers: Machine Guns, Small Arms and SightsType 10 (TK-X), Japan

Type 10 (TK-X) is an advanced fourth-generation main battle tank built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the Japan Ground Self Defence Force (JGSDF). The tank entered into service with the JGSDF in 2012 and claims outstanding mobility.

The Type 10 MBT's fire power is complemented by a 120mm smooth-bore gun, a 12.7mm heavy machine gun and Type 74 7.62mm cannon. The sophisticated C4I system ensures interoperability with the infantry troops during integrated combat missions.

The tank's hull is attached with modular ceramic composite armour offering protection against rocket propelled grenade (RPG) rounds, HEAT projectiles and anti-tank missiles. The add-on modules can be easily removed and installed to alter the protection levels. The 1,200hp water-cooled diesel engine provides a maximum speed of 70km/h.

Leclerc, France

The Leclerc is a French main battle tank developed by GIAT Industries (now Nexter Systems) for the French Army and is also currently in service with the UAE Army. The first Leclerc tank was handed over to the DGA (French Procurement Agency) in January 1992.

Leclerc is a third-generation tank armed with a Nato standard CN120-26 120mm smooth bore gun, a coaxial 12.7mm machine gun and a roof-mounted 7.62mm machine gun. The tank can carry 40 rounds of 120mm ammunition and more than 950 rounds of 12.7mm ammunition.

The advanced modular armour made of steel, ceramics and Kevlar offers all-round crew protection, which can be raised to protect against IEDs, mines and RPGs. The Galix self-protection system fitted to the tank further increases its survivability. The tank has a maximum speed of 72km/h and can strike targets at a speed of 50km/h on any terrain.

T-90MS, Russia

The T-90MS, a modernised version of the T-90 main battle tank built by Uralvagonzavod, was unveiled for the first time at Russian Expo Arms in September 2011. The T-90MS has been extensively modernised to deliver enhance combat performance in present warfare scenarios.

The 125mm 2A46M-5 gun of the tank fires different types of ammunition with high accuracy. The tank is also armed with a 6P7K 7.62mm antiaircraft machine gun on a remotely controlled weapon station.

The modular ERA panels mounted on rear and side of the tank offer protection against small weapons and shell splinters. The forward hull and turret can be fitted with RELIKT reactive armour for protection against anti-tank missiles. The T-90MS also features an optoelectronic screening system and electromagnetic protection system. A V-92S2F engine with rated power of 1,130hp provides maximum speed of 60km/h to the tank.

Oplot-M (Modernized) / BM Oplot, Ukraine

Oplot-M (Modernised) or BM Oplot is an advanced version of the T-84 Oplot main battle tank manufactured by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building. The advanced MBT is operated by the Ukrainian Armed Forces and the Royal Thai Army.

The Oplot-M's main gun is a KBA-3 125mm cannon with an auto-loading system, which can fire HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation), APFSDS and HEAT rounds, as well as guided missiles. The secondary armament constitutes a KT-7.62 (PKT) 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and a KT-12.7 remote-controlled anti-aircraft machine gun.

The multilayer armour on the Oplot-M can withstand hits of HEAT and APFSDS projectiles and the built-in anti-tandem-warhead explosive reactive armour (BATW-ERA) defends kinetic energy rounds and anti-tank grenades and missiles. The protection is further enhanced by a smoke generator and Varta optronic countermeasures system. The 6?D-2 1,200hp engine ensures a maximum speed of 70km/h.

Type 99 (ZTZ-99), China

Type 99 (ZTZ-99) is a third generation main battle tank built by China Northern Industries Group Corporation (NORINCO) for the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). The tank entered into service with the PLA in 2001.

The fully-stabilised 125mm ZPT98 smoothbore gun equipped with auto-loader provides superior firepower to the ZTZ99, and is capable of firing APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG projectiles, as well as laser-guided anti-tank missiles. The tank is also armed with a 12.7mm anti-aircraft gun and a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun.

The tank features a steel armoured hull with the front portion and turret covered with explosive reactor armour (ERA). Survivability is further enhanced by a countermeasures system and smoke grenade launchers. The turbo-charged 1,500hp diesel engine fitted to the tank provides a maximum speed of 80km/h on road.

Wearing nicotin patches in Ramadan is Hallal

Ramadan Question: Can you use deodorant, incense while fasting?Dr Ali Ahmed Mashael, Grand Mufti, Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department, Dubai (IACAD), answers readers' questions on fasting during the Holy Month of RamadanPublished Monday, June 30, 2014

Dr Ali Ahmed Mashael, Grand Mufti, Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department, Dubai (IACAD). (SUPPLIED)

Is it permissible to use a deodorant or light incense (bakhoor) during fasting?

Deodorant does not break the fast, but a person shouldn’t use perfumes or inhale the smoke of incense (bakhoor). If inhaled deliberately, it breaks the fast and the person should re-fast that day.

Can one use a medicinal nicotine patch on the body to quit smoking, during the fasting hours?

Nicotine patches and the like are allowed if none of its ingredients go into or through the stomach of the person.

Nothing can be swallowed by the person.

That which is absorbed by the body – like smells in aromatherapy - will not effect on the validity of the fasting.

Therefore, use patches that will not spoil the fast.

A person should control himself and refrain from smoking during the day in Ramadan and at night also - give up the habit.

Tomorrow: What if one hears the 'adhan' of Fajr while taking his/her suhoor?

- As told to Mohammad El Sadafy

Exploring IslamFasting During the Long Summer Days in Some Western CountriesBy: 

Exploring IslamFasting During the Long Summer Days in Some Western CountriesBy: Abdullah Rahim

Note: Numbers in brackets refer to the footnotes that are at the end of the article


Luleå is a city in the North of Sweden. During the month of June, there are days in Luleå when the dawn time is 00:51 AM and the sunset is 11:43 PM. When the month of Ramadān falls in June, those among the minority Muslims of Luleå who can bear it, fast for about 23 hours a day. They have less than 2 hours to break their fast, do their obligatory and supererogatory prayers and have their suhūr before starting another day of about 23 hours of fasting. They do this due to the understanding that based on verse 2:187 of the Qur’ān they are expected by the Almighty to fast that long unless they are physically incapable of that. This is while at the same time their fellow Muslims in the Muslim countries are fasting for fourteen or fifteen hours per day. The popular advice for them is that if they cannot tolerate these long hours, they need to fast during other times of year.

Kristoffer Törnmalm writes in Swedish Daily Paper:

It will be a challenge. 30 years ago there were not this many Muslims living here in Sweden and especially not up in the North. Today it is a problem that touches more people. … For us the fasting takes around 20 hours. Many people think it will be hard. But it is always worst in the first days, then it usually gets better.

But for the moment there is no agreement to rely upon. … There is nobody who is certain on how to do. It is partly because the persons who have the authority in the Muslim world have difficulties in understanding how it is in practice, it is basically impossible to understand. (1)

This article is written solely to help with inquiries similar to the above.


This articles aims to address a contemporary issue with regards to fasting that is specifically relevant to Muslims who live in certain geographical places like Northern Europe. After explaining and illustrating the issue, first the more popular and dominant view will be presented and discussed. This view will then be critically analyzed by comparing it with a less popular and less dominant view. The article ends with some concluding remarks where the advantages and disadvantages of each view are discussed and suggestions are given.

The inquiry that is discussed in this article is related to places where there is proper day and night within 24 hours, however the day is extremely long at certain times of the year. The areas where there is no proper day or night within 24 hours is not the subject of this article. (2)

It is a well-known fact that in countries above the 50 degrees latitude, the fasting time during the summer is extremely long. To look at an example, Oslo in Norway experiences summer time days of more than 20 hours. It is interesting to compare the shortest and longest fasting hours between the two cities of Mecca and Oslo. The figure below summarises the difference (3):
The above figure illustrates the change in fasting time throughout the year for Mecca and Oslo. The thick, continuous line represents the length of fasting throughout the year in Mecca while the non-continuous thin line represents the same for Oslo, Norway. Some descriptive analysis follows:
According to this calculation for year 2010, the shortest fasting times for Makkah and Oslo were respectively 12 hours and 11 minutes, and eight hours and 43 minutes. This happened on 21st of December 2010. The longest fasting times for Makkah and Oslo were respectively 14 hours and 55 minutes, and 20 hours and 31 minutes. This happened on 23rd July 2010. While in Makkah fasting time changes only two hours and 44 minutes thought out a year, in Oslo it changes by 11 hours and 48 minutes. The difference between the longest fasting time in Makkah and Oslo is five hours and 36 minutes.

The obvious problem here is the very long fasting days of summer in Oslo, that is representative of many other countries in the world with similar or even more extreme conditions. While in Makkah, the original centre of Islam, and in most other Muslim countries, people fast around 14 hours or so during the summer time; in some places in the world, like Oslo, the minority Muslim population (which is already disadvantaged by the lack of social support for their ritual fasting), needs to fast more than 20 hours per day that is about 1.5 times compared to fasting times of other Muslims.

The reader should not think that the above is a very extreme condition. Cities like Luleå in Sweden experience fasting time of about 23 hours per day during the summer. (4)

The continuous fasting for 20 to 23 hours per day for up to thirty days makes fasting during summer a challenge in places like Oslo and Luleå, which, for some Muslims, is difficult to manage. What makes this more difficult is that during the less than 4 hours (or about an hour in case of Luleå) that is available between sunset and dawn, the person breaks the fast, offers maghrib and ‘ishā prayers, perhaps wishes to participate in what is known as tarāwīh prayers and then also needs to have suhūr before starting another fast.

It is only natural to see many inquiries arising from this situation. People rightly want to know what their religious duty is when they face such long fasting hours. Some of these inquiries very rightly and innocently sound quite desperate:

Several Muslim associations in the North of Sweden have taken contact with among others the Islamic Association and asked how to cope with the feast when it occurs in the Summer. Kabir Marefat, President of the Islamic Association in Luleå, has contacted several learned Muslims both in Sweden and in Saudi Arabia and asked for interpretations of the fasting rules that may facilitate the fasting of the Luleå Muslims. (5)

The Dominant View:

In answering inquiries like the above, the popular view seems to be to keep fasting, no matter how long the day is, unless it is beyond the capacity of an individual. For instance the following statement is issued as the statement of The Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia:

With regard to the timings of their fast in Ramadān, those who are accountable should refrain from food, drink and everything else that invalidates the fast each day of Ramadān, from the time of dawn until sunset in their countries, so long as the night can be distinguished from the day, and when day and night together add up to twenty-four hours. It is permissible for them to eat, drink, have intercourse, etc during the night only, even if it is short. The sharī‘ah of Islam is universal and applies to all people in all countries. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till nightfall. 2:187 (6)

In answering a similar question, the Centre of Religious Statement of Saudi Arabia, Al-Lajnah al-Dā’imah li al-Buhūth al-‘Amaliyyah wa al-Iftā chaired by ‘Abd al-‘Azīz ibn ‘Abdullāh ibn Bāz at the time, has written:

قد خاطب الله المؤمنين بفرض الصيام فقال تعالى: { يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ } وبين ابتداء الصيام وانتهاءه فقال تعالى: { وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ } ولم يخصص هذا الحكم ببلد ولا بنوع من الناس، بل شرعه شرعا عاما، وهؤلاء المسئول عنهم داخلون في هذا العموم

Verily God has addressed (all) believers about the obligation of fasting so the Almighty says: “Believers! Fasting has been made obligatory upon you as it was made upon those before you so that you become fearful of God,” and the beginning and the end of fasting is explained as the Almighty says:  “And eat and drink until the white thread of the dawn is totally evident to you from the black thread of night; then complete the fast till nightfall,” and this directive is not specific to any city or any type of people, rather, it is made as a general rule, and the people who are the subject of the question (i.e. those living in places where night during summer lasts only three hours) are included in this general rule. (7)

Another similar view:

… every responsible adult Muslim who is present when Ramadān comes is obliged to fast, no matter whether the day is short or long. If a person is unable to complete a day’s fast, and fears that he may die or become ill, he is permitted to eat just enough to keep his strength up and keep himself safe from harm, then he should stop eating and drinking for the rest of the day, and he has to make up the days he has missed later on, when he is able to fast. And Allah knows best. (8)

Among the Shiite scholars too the above is a popular view. For instance, in answering a question about long hours of fasting, Mahdī Hadawī Tahrānī has issued the following verdict:

In the areas that have normal night and day, meaning sun rises and sets in 24 hours, Muslims need to follow the local times and if they fall in extreme difficulty in doing this because of the length of the day, then they are not obliged to fast. They will need to make it up and they can do this during the short days of winter. (9)

The Dominant View is on the basis of certain observations from the following verses of the Qur’ān:

... وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ...

... And eat and drink until the white thread of the dawn is totally evident to you from the black thread of night. Then complete the fast till nightfall ... . (2:187)

... وَ مَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلىَ‏ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ  يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَ لَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْر ...

... And whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days, God desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty... . (2:185)

These observations are as follows:

-       Verse 2:187 makes it clear that fasting from dawn to sunset is a definite directive.

-       Verse 2:185 opens a door that makes it unnecessary to change the fasting hours. The door is the simple permission to skip the fasting if one is ill or is in travel.

The conclusion of the Dominant View from the above is that there is absolutely no way to change the time of fasting and that this is in fact not needed any way since the person is allowed to skip the fasting (if it is beyond his tolerance) and to make it up later.

Less Dominant View:

In addressing the issue of fasting during long hours, there is another view that is less popular but no less scholarly. According to this view, Muslims who live in the areas with extreme length of summer days are allowed to adopt a shorter daytime on the basis of a city that can be used as a reference point.

In addressing the issue, the Dar al-Iftā al-Misriyyah (Egyptian Centre for Religious Verdict) has issued the following religious verdict:

يجوز لمسلمي النرويج وغيرهم ممن شاكلهم في وضعهم إن يصوموا على قدر الساعات التي يصومها أهل مكة أو المدينة في حال طول نهارهم وقصر ليلهم أو أن يقدروا باقرب البلاد المعتدلة اليهم وأن يبداوا بالصوم من طلوع الفجر ويفطرون مع ميعاد البلاد التي يقدرون بها من حيث عدد الساعات ولا يتوقفون على غروب الشمس

It is permitted for Muslims in Norway and others with similar situation to fast to the length of fasting in Makkah or Madīnah during long days and short nights or they can adopt the timing of the closest city with moderate (days and nights) and start their fast from dawn and break it in accordance to the hours (of fasting) of the city that was taken as the reference and do not need to wait till sunset.  (10)

Similarly, the then head of the centre for Fatwā in Al-Azhar, Muhammad al-Ahmadī Abū al-Nūr writes:

فنفيد بأن من يعيش في مثل هذه البلاد التي يطول فيها النهار طولاً بعيداً لا يستطاع معه الصيام طول النهار، عليه أن يبدأ الصيام من أول طلوع الفجر في البلد الذي يعيش فيه، ويستمر صيامه ساعات تساوي الساعات التي يصومها من يعيش في مكة المكرمة، ثم يفطر بعد هذه الساعات

For the person who lives in these cities where the day light is too long that makes it impossible for him to fast; he needs to start his fasting from the dawn of the city he lives in and to continue his fasting to the length that is equal to the length of fasting of one who lives in the glorious Mecca and then to break his fast after that length. (11)

Among more recent scholars but still in the category of classic traditional scholars of Islam, Ibn Yūsuf Khalīl (12) writes:

There are several opinions on the issue, all the obvious result of ijtihād… Solely on the basis of istihsān, my suggestion is …. that the fasting day be based on the “earth day” calculation. Based on our research, an average earth day equates to roughly 12 hours of sunlight, so given this average … a person in the northern or southern region, taking into consideration the normal commencement of the work day, etc., could start the fast at approximately 6:00am and end it at 6:00 pm. … (13)

Similarly among Shiite scholars there are some who have similar religious view. For example, Mukarram Shīrāzī addresses the issue as follows:

In different books of jurisprudence when there are issues that are related to abnormal conditions, the view is to follow the norm. … Therefore in areas where days and nights are longer than the norm one needs to adopt the conditions of a normal (moderate) place … (14)

It should be noted that all the above quotes are in answering inquiries about extreme fasting hours within 24 hours.

The Less Dominant View is on the basis of the observation that fasting was not supposed to be a burden and something that would need to be tolerated. Fasting was supposed to be a symbolic exercise of patience and taqwā that was just enough to make the person feel the result of observing God’s directive for the month of Ramadān and to give him a limited opportunity to smoothly challenge his desires.

Other than the length of the fast during summer in these countries, it needs to be appreciated that the issue is not just the difficulty due to the length of the fasting period in these countries. Some physically strong Muslims may feel that this is not difficult. Another aspect of the above is (whether long fasting hours are tolerable or not) it certainly does not integrate with typical daily schedules of people. Looking at the start and the end of fasting during the winter and summer in the Arabian Peninsula reveals that fasting time was set in a way that it would nicely fit in with the typical daily schedules of people. People start fasting shortly before the start of their daily work and they end the fast around or close to the time when they are resting after a day of working. This is not the same when people have to break the fast a couple of hours before the midnight and to start it after having Suhur a couple of hours passed the midnight.

Therefore according to the Less Dominant View the fact that people “can survive” when fasting very long hours is not relevant. The simple fact according to this view is that the fasting time practically meant to be just above half of the 24 hours for Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula. Fasting for as long as 20 to 23 hours (that is just short of the whole 24 hours) is in a totally different level of practice and changes the whole mood and the idea behind the act of worship that is fasting. The Less Dominant View simply refuses to accept that, by default, the religious duty of people in certain areas of the Earth (who all happen to be minority Muslims) is to fast more than 80% of the full day. Ibn Yusuf Khalīl writes:

I realize that there are some Muslims who for whatever reason (be it stamina, strict adherence to the tradition, etc.) will view my suggestion as heresy and stick to the dawn and sunset times in their regions regardless of the extremely long summer days. My recommendation is for those Muslims who concur that Allah does not want the fast to be overly burdensome on us. And Allah knows best. (15)


The Dominant View disagrees with the Less Dominant View based on the following objections:

a. Changing the time of fasting goes against the explicit instructions of the Qur’ān in verse 2:187 where the start and the end of the fasting are clearly mentioned.

b. To suggest changing the time of fasting is in effect questioning the universality of the instructions of the Qur’ān.

c. Ijtihād is only allowed where shari‘ah is silent, yet here the Qur’ān is not silent as we are given a clear solution in verse 2:185, where it says that a person who is ill and a traveller are not expected to fast.

This author argues that from the perspective of the Less Dominant View, all the three objections can be seen to be unfounded and based on wrong conclusions from the verses of the Qur’ān:

A. Response to the first objection, i.e. changing the time of fasting goes against the explicit instructions of the Qur’ān in verse 2:187.

It is of course a fact that verse 2:187 has explicitly instructed us about the start and the end of the fasting in a day. The assumption of the objection is that the start and the finishing points here are the backbone of this instruction. This, however, is an assumption that can be challenged by looking at the chart that was given earlier in this article. It is obvious that in the Arabian Peninsula the instructed start and end points of fasting produce very smooth and reasonable fasting hours throughout the year. This seems to be directly associated with the fact that is given at the end of verse 2:185, emphasizing that God does not want to create difficulties for people. A simple question can be raised that when the Almighty says He does not want difficulty for people and wants ease for them, then how it is possible to justify that the religious duty of Muslims in, for example, Luleå is to fast almost all the day for several consecutive days (the fact that they are allowed to skip this if they cannot tolerate it and fast in a different time of the year does not cancel this question).

We of course know that as the continuation of the mission of the progeny of Abraham (rta) the Qur’ān had to be revealed in the Middle East and since this mission was going to be passed to Ishmaelites, therefore the Qur’ān had to be revealed in the Arabian Peninsula (and of course there can be further reasons for the choice of this location that we are not aware of and are based on the ultimate wisdom of the Almighty). However, to bring the issue closer to mind and for the sake of better understanding, we can carry out a simple mind exercise as follows:

If the Qur’ān was not revealed in Arabian Peninsula but in Sweden, would dawn and sunset still have been the start and end of fasting? If this was the case then (for people who had to fast 23 hours a day when the month of Ramadān was in summer) how meaningful would the verse: “God does not want difficulty for you and wants ease for you,” have been? On the other hand, how meaningful would fasting have been for people who would have to fast only for 6 hours (which is a routine gap between two meals for many) during the month of December in Luleå when dawn was around 7:00 AM and sunset was around 1:30 PM? (16)

It is possible based on the above mind exercise to argue that starting the fast at dawn and ending it at sunset is not the backbone of the instruction of fasting in the verse 2:187. Rather, it seems that the backbone of the instruction is the reasonable length of fasting that these two points produce for the location where the Qur’ān was revealed. Starting and ending the fast with natural phenomenon like dawn and sunset which also coordinates with prayer times is of course a blessing and is certainly a wisdom behind the given instructions in the Qur’ān. However, based on the aforementioned understanding, this blessing does not allow one to break the backbone of the divine instruction, which is the reasonable length of fasting.

If we appreciate the above, then we can understand why the Less Dominant View does not agree this view goes against the Qur’ān.

There is another way of addressing this objection as well which might be more acceptable by those who are more interested in the exact wording of the verse 2:187.

The concept of “earth day” as quoted from Ibn Yūsuf Khalīl points to the fact that no matter when the sun rises and when it sets, for human beings, the routine of day and night activities are mostly unchanged. For example whether darkness starts at 4:00 PM or 11:00 PM, for a human being with a normal daily routine, the time of having dinner and sleeping is the same.

It is interesting that verse 2:187, while referring to the start of the time of fasting in a very technical way, (17) refers to the time of ending of fast in a less technical way (18). In line with the concept of the ‘earth day’ one may argue that “night” in this verse does not refer to what is known as scientific night, but simply means “night” in the way that is commonly used by people. For example when a person in Luleå during the summer time says: “I will visit you tomorrow night”, under normal circumstances no one interpret that to mean he wants to visit around 11:00 PM. Rather, people normally interpret that in a common sense (in line with the concept of the “earth day”). If we agree that this is how people commonly refer to “night” in their everyday usage of the word, then we may well argue that the same definition of “night” should be applied for the end of the fasting time. (19)

Again, based on this alternative response, the Less Dominant view does not change the wording of the Qur’ān, but in fact seeks the intended meaning based on the understanding that many of the Qur’ānic expressions do not refer to a technical/scientific meaning of the expressions, but the common sense meaning of them.

B. Response to the second objection, suggestion to change the timing of fasting means questioning the universality of the Qur’ān.

Interestingly enough, it seems easier for the Less Dominant View to defend the universality of the Qur’ān and it seems like the Dominant View might have problems fully defending this.

The Dominant View agrees with the Less Dominant View that in places far North where the length of day is more than 24 hours, the time of Makkah or a city with normal day and night conditions need to be adopted. However, if (as the Dominant View argues) the start and the end of fasting, as mentioned in the Qur’ān, is included among the universal directives of the Qur’ān then one may ask why was the directive not given in a way that it could apply to all places on the face of Earth. The Dominant View holds that the start and end points of fasting (as instructed in the Qur’ān) are universal, yet uses another criterion for places with more than 24 hours of sunlight. This seems like a contradiction.

For the Less Dominant View, however, this contradiction does not apply. To them the universal element of the verse of the Qur’ān is not the start and end points of fasting, but is in fact the length of fasting that result from the start and end points in the Arabian Peninsula.

In other words, the Less Dominant View has an understanding from verse 2:187 that supports the universality of the directives of the Qur’ān while the Dominant View holds an understanding that practically conflicts with the principle of universality of the Qur’ān.

C. Response to the third objection, i.e. Ijtihād is only allowed where sharī‘ah is silent and here (with verse 2:185) sharī‘ah is not silent.

According to the Dominant View, since verse 2:185 has opened a way for those who due to illness or travel may find fasting difficult, therefore it is not correct to say that sharī‘ah is silent about the issues like long hours of fasting. It seems like the Dominant View considers the allowance given in verse 2:185 to be relevant to the long hour of fasting as well. For example Shehzad Saleeem writes on the basis of the same understanding:

Traveling and sickness understandably incapacitate a person. The relief given is for this reason. Analogously all situations which incapacitate a person can also be subsumed under this concession given. Hence we can conclude on the basis of analogical deduction that if a person finds it difficult to fast in a particular Ramadān because of extreme timings or extreme weather conditions, he can defer his fasts to some other part of the year when these timings or weather become manageable for him or her. (20)

The assumption of the Dominant View, which can also be derived from the above quote, is that obligation (taklīf) is to fast from dawn to sunset, irrespective of the length of the day. The Dominant View then considers those who cannot fast during this time to be exceptions and therefore applies the allowance given in 2:185 to these exceptions.

Both the assumption and the application seem to be questionable from the perspective of the Less Dominant View:

First, as discussed in response to objection “A”, this assumption is not shared by the Less Dominant View. From the perspective of the Less Dominant View the backbone of the directive is the length of the fasting rather than the start and the end point of the fasting. Instead of repeating the reasoning that was provided earlier, I would like to quote from the late Mahmud Shaltut, the famous scholar of al-Azhar, with regard to the long fasting hours:

صيام ثلاث وعشرين ساعة من أصل أربع وعشرين تكليف تأباه الحكمة من أحكم الحاكمين، والرحمة من أرحم الراحمين

Fasting for 23 hours of 24 hours is an (assumed) obligation that is against the wisdom of the Best Judge of Judges and the mercy of the Most Merciful of Merciful Ones. (21)

Second, it needs to be appreciated that verse 2:185 is in fact silent about the issue of extreme time of fasting. It is the Dominant View that “interprets” the verse and “analyses” it to apply it to this new issue. It is therefore not correct to say that the Qur’ān is NOT silent about this issue. The Dominant View itself has done ijtihād by applying the allowance in verse 2:185 to this contemporary issue. It is ironic that it then criticizes the Less Dominant View on the basis of the argument that ijtihād is not needed when the Qur’ān is not silent.

Third, the analysis of the Dominant View is that since traveling and sickness to some extent incapacitate a person therefore the relief given in verse 2:185 is because of this. Analogously they then conclude that all situations which incapacitate a person to the same extent can also be subsumed under the concession given. There seems to be an illogical analogy here in that verse 2:185 is giving permission for exceptional cases where it is solely the specific situation of individuals (illness, travel), initiated in/by them, that makes it difficult for them to fast. However the issue of fasting long hours is not about specific situation of individuals initiated by/in them. Here it is the “Directive” (as advised by the Dominant View) not the “Individual’s Situation” that has caused the issue. This tiny yet important difference makes the analogy less than flawless.

A theoretical argument in favour of the Less Dominant View

The Less Dominant View can also challenge the Dominant view by raising a theoretical question. Looking at the following graph, it is clear that for areas at 66.6 latitude the daylight during June will be only a few minutes less than 24 hours (22). Whether in those areas there are any residents or not is not relevant. The question is, since theoretically Muslims can face this situation, where exactly the Dominant View draws the line.
Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln (23)

Does the dominant view advise that even if there are only 2 minutes to break the fast and start the fast again, Muslims in these areas should keep fasting according to sun dawn and sunset? This does not seem to be a practical advice. Surely even the Dominant View needs to accept the adjustment of fasting hours when the fasting time is getting extremely close to 24 hours.

If the above can be appreciated, then there does not seem to be much difference between the Dominant View and the Less Dominant View. The difference will only be about where to draw the line, otherwise, theoretically both agree that at some point (within 24 hours day and night) the fasting time needs to be adjusted.

Objections of the followers of the Dominant View:

Some of the Muslims who strictly prefer the Dominant View have raised objections as well. Although these objections cannot be considered as academic ones yet they raise important issues and need to be addressed. Some of the most important objections and a brief answer based on the Less Dominant View are as follows:

a. Many can fast during long summer days so what is the need for the Less Dominant View?

First, it needs to be appreciated that fasting is not supposed to be a marathon of not eating and drinking. As discussed above, looking at the length of fasting in the Arabian Peninsula, and in line with the general spirit of religious directives, fasting is supposed to be a practice that puts some pressure on us but does not entirely exhaust our energy. Many can keep fasting while in travel or while being ill. Yet because of the same principle we are not expected to fast in these situations.

Second, the issue is not just about whether long fasting hours are tolerable or not. As discussed above, another point is that fasting time in Arabian Peninsula fits perfectly with the typical working and resting hours of a person and is therefore nicely integrated with the normal schedule of people. This is while extreme fasting hours clash with the normal daily schedule of life.

Third, the Less Dominant View does not forbid fasting for the whole day in the extremely long days. It only provides an alternative and also a solution for those who find it difficult or against the spirit of fasting, to fast that long.

b. People fast for extremely long hours during summer but then in a few years time they will fast for extremely short hours during winter. Does this not solve the problem by balancing the overall fasting time during years?

The issue is not about overall balance of fasting hours. The issue is simply about abnormal fasting hours during the summer time in some of the areas in the world. The fact that the person will do extremely shorter fasting during winters does not take away the difficulty and abnormality of fasting during the long summer.

c. If we follow the Less Dominant View then is it not fair to also adopt the Makkah time when fasting during the winter (when days are very short)?

Fasting in winter where days are extremely short would have been an issue if the concern was merely to adopt typical fasting hours. This however is not the concern. The basis of the Less Dominant View is the advice given in the Qur’ān which runs in every religious directive, that is, God does not want difficulty for you. On this basis the point of focus and the problem in hand is only the extreme summer times. We should also appreciate that this is not a case of entering a business transaction where we need to adopt a ‘fair take and give’ policy with the other side of the business. We are merely servants of the Almighty. He does not need our acts of worship and certainly does not expect us to do more on the basis of ijtihād.

Having said this, referring to the above graph, in places and times that fasting time might get extremely short (theoretically it can be as short as only a few minutes), there seems to be a reasonable ground to discuss whether longer hours of fasting need to be adopted.

d.      If we open the door for this way of reasoning, then we will get into the danger of changing many of the rules of sharī‘ah based on newly emerged issues.

Before addressing the above, it needs to be noted that the scholars who hold the Less Dominant View are mostly categorized as the traditional and classic scholars of Islam. The views that were quoted for the Less Dominant View all come from such category of scholars and sources. These scholars are adherents to the most traditional understanding of Islam that at points can and has generated practical issues in some Muslim communities yet they have not changed their traditional views about those issues. The view of these scholars on the issue of extreme hour of fasting does not come from any radical way of thinking and is deeply rooted in their understanding of the traditional knowledge and approach of understanding Islam.

However the main point is that the above concern is based on a wrong understanding of the reasoning of the Less Dominant View. The Less Dominant View is not suggesting changing a religious directive. Rather they argue that a religious directive has not been understood entirely. They have come to this understanding due to the emergence of a practical issue that is, fasting for extreme hours. This is not the first time that realising a practical problem prompts scholars to reassess their understanding of a religious directive in order to (not change it but) understand it better. If at any time in future another newly emerged issue prompts some of the most learned scholars of Islam to reassess their understanding of a religious directive, then this should be a reason to be proud about the scholarship of Islam rather than to be worried about it.

Practical problems of the Less Dominant View:

The above rather favourable arguments for the Less Dominant View should not create a misunderstanding that the author is unaware or unappreciative of some of the obstacles and practical issues related to the Less Dominant View. Two of these are as follows:

- Since this is a matter of ijtihād and since the scholars who hold the Less Dominant View have not attempted to coordinate with each other and reach common specifications, there are a number of questions that will remain with more than one answer. From what length of day upwards should we consider adopting the times of a different city? Which city or what basis should be used as the point of reference? (24) How should one adopt the different times? (25) This subjectivity is of course a natural result of any act of ijtihād, however in this case the range of possible alternatives seems to be quite wide and the fact that there has been little attempt to bring some agreement on these issues makes the problem more complex.

- We are well aware of the suffering of Muslims due to lack of unity. Even in the acts of worship like fasting we can see examples of this (e.g. Muslims observe the month of Ramadān and the ‘id on different days while being in the same geographical area). The Less Dominant View can easily result in yet further disunity in acts of worship among Muslims, especially considering the above point.


The first point that needs to be appreciated is that the whole issue of extreme fasting time in some of the countries in the northern parts of the Earth and the way to deal with this issue is based on ijtihād (religious opinion). Accordingly, as long as this ijtihād is done based on religiously acceptable reasoning no one can and should consider one v to be the exact sharī‘ah and the other one to be against the sharī‘ah.

Two views were discussed and evaluated in this article. There is a Dominant View that instructs that Muslims should fast from dawn to sunset irrespective of the length of fasting (as long there is a day and night within 24 hours) unless this is beyond their capacity, in which case they need to fast during another time of the year. In contrast, the Less Dominant View argues that Muslims who are facing extreme hours of fasting are allowed to adopt the fasting time of a different city in the world where the hours of fasting are more moderate.

According to the Dominant View, the backbone of the instruction of the Qur’ān in verse 2:187 is the start and the end point of fasting while according to the Less Dominant view, the backbone of the instruction is the length of fasting that is supposed to be moderate.

The Dominant View has a practical advantage in that it gives a specific solution that is straightforward. Accordingly the person either fasts irrespective of the length of the fasting or postpones his fast if fasting in extremely long days is beyond his capability. Also it seems like most people find themselves more comfortable with this view simply because it is literally in-line with the wording of the Qur’ān.

On the other hand, it is difficult to digest and justify (on the basis of the Compassion and the Wisdom of the Almighty) the fact that while all Muslims fast for a maximum of 15 hours in their countries, there are those who are religiously obliged to fast as long as 20 - 23 hours a day. This simply negates the fact that God does not want to impose difficulty on people. To argue that people can choose to fast later in the year if they find it difficult is not an answer to the above. The question is not about what these people need to do; rather the question is:  why are these people obliged to undertake such a difficult religious duty in the first place? The places where these extreme hours of fasting occur are all in non-Muslim countries. The minority Muslims are already disadvantaged due to lack of enough social support and lack of a ‘fasting atmosphere’ in these non-Muslim countries. The Dominant View puts them in further disadvantage by advising them that if they cannot fast during the extreme hours then they need to fast some other time in the year. This for many Muslims who live in these areas (especially mostly young and elderly) means that they have to fast when not even the minority Muslim community would provide support and inspiration (that is naturally provided during the month of Ramadān). Further, from the spiritual point of view it is understandable that for many individuals, fasting during the month of Ramadān is always more desirable than fasting during another month of the year.

Another methodological problem with the Dominant View is its criticism of the Less Dominant View by bringing up the principle of universality of the directives of the Qur’ān. As discussed in this article, in practice, it seems like it is the Dominant View itself that does not adhere to this principle (when it comes to fasting time in places where there is no proper day in 24 hours).

On the other hand the Less Dominant View has a conceptual rather than literal approach to the instruction of the Qur’ān about the time of fasting. The conclusion that is reached seems to be more in-line with the general spirit of religious directives and (as explained in the discussion section) it also fits with the issue of universality of the Qur’ān.

However the Less Dominant View can result in a variety of different standards when it comes to practice. This is because there is no agreed upon ijtihād, within the Less Dominant View, on when to adopt the timing of a different place and what place or point of reference can be chosen for this (26). This can contribute to further disunity and perhaps clashes among the Muslim communities.

Having said that, it also needs to be appreciated that different understanding of religious directives per se, should not create disunity. In other words, the problem of disunity is rooted in more in-depth socio-cultural and political platforms rather than mere different understanding of the religious directives. The first generations of Muslims too had a different understanding of religious directives, yet, they were much more united than Muslims of our era.

It is important to appreciate that God expects us to act in accordance with an honest understanding of our duties. As long as a religious opinion is formulated with that honesty by people of knowledge and as long as those who accept that religious opinion are doing so in the honest pursuit of truth, there should not be any worries nor any clashes between the adherents of different religious views. This was surely the way of the first generation of Muslims who witnessed the Prophet of God (sws). May the Almighty guide us all in following their path.


1. Swedish Daily Paper (Svenska Dagbladet) – 01.08.11

2. There seems to be a major agreement that when there is no proper day or night within 24 hours, then the timing of a different city (which may be Makkah, the closest Muslim country, the closest country with proper day and night in 24 hours, etc.) needs to be adopted.

3. The figure is generated based on the calculation method of Makkah for year 2010, as given in Since here the illustration is only for comparison purposes, other methods of calculation do not generate any significantly different results.

4. This is around the 20th of June based on the time table published by Bilal Mosque in Sweden

5. Swedish Daily Paper (Svenska Dagbladet) – 01.08.11

6. Islam Q.A. website, Fatwā number 5842 For the original Arabic version, look up: Sa’īd ibn ‘Alī ibn Wahf al-Qahtānī, Al-siyām fi al-Islam fi Dhu al-Kitāb wa al-Sunnah (n.p.: Markaz Al-Da‘wah wa al-irshād, 1431 AH), 227.

7. Fatawa Al-Lajnah al-Dā’imah li al-Buhūth al-‘Amaliyyah wa al-Iftā by Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Duwaysh, Fatwā No. 1442, 12:146

8. Fatāwā al-Lajnah al-Dā’imah, 10/114

9. Translation from the website:

10. Khālid ‘Abd Al-Qādir, Min Fiqh al-‘Aqaliyāt al-Muslimah, 124.

11. Al-Hawārī, M.D., Ikhtilāf Sa‘āti al-siyam fi Khututi al-Ard al-Āliyaa, (an online copy can be found at



14. Translation from the website



17. حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ

(until the white thread of the dawn is totally evident to you from the black thread of night)

18. ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ (then complete the fast till night)

19. The point about possibility of interpreting the word ‘night’, in the verse, in a non-technical way was first brought to the author’s attention by Mr. Moiz Amjad, founder of Understanding Islam website (

20. Saleem, S., Monthly Renaissance, August 2012.

21. Shaltūt, Fatāwā, 146.

22. Note the graph is on the basis of daylight which is from sunrise to sunset. This of course will be shorter than fasting hours that are between sun dawn and sunset. However the graph can be used for estimation.


24. Some of the suggested options are Makkah, Madīnah, the closest Muslim city, the closest city with moderate length of the day, the average Earth day.

25. Some of the options are: starting with the dawn at the local time and ending when the length of fasting is equal to the length of fasting of the point of reference; starting after the dawn at the time when by the sunset the length of fasting becomes equal to the length of fasting of the point of reference; starting with the dawn at the local time but ending at the hours that is sunset in the point of reference.

26. Many of the scholars who hold the Less Dominant View seem to apply it to fasting beyond 18 hours. The popular advice for them seems to be to fast from dawn according to the local time but to end it when the length of fasting reaches to the same number of hours that Muslims are fasting in Mecca.

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Thursday, 26 June 2014

Nigerian Atheists forced into mental Hospital for rejecting Islam


Beijing Bulletin Wednesday 25th June, 2014

• Family allegedly told son that all atheists have mental conditions
• They injected him with sedative and admitted him to mental hospital
• He raise alarm about his plight using a smuggled phone
LAGOS, Nigeria - A Muslim family in Nigeria has declared their chemical engineering graduate son mentally ill and forced him into a mental hospital after he rejected Islam as his religion and announced he was an atheist, his lawyer has said.
Media reports citing the lawyer said that the 29-year-old Mubarak Bala has been in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, in Kano State for the past nearly two weeks.
He raised the alarm about his forced detention in the mental institution from a smuggled phone that he used in the toilet of the hospital.
He said he was being drugged and held against his will in the psychiatric ward of the institution.
He said his father and three uncles on Friday beat him up before he was injected with a sedative. He woke up 30 hours later in the hospital.
"The biggest evidence of my mental illness was large blasphemies and denial of 'history' of Adam, and apostasy, to which the doctor said was a personality change, that everyone needs a God, that even in Japan they have a God," he wrote.
"And my brother added that all the atheists I see have had mental illness at some point in their life."
His Facebook profile was updated, apparently by his family, immediately after his detention claiming that he was now a Muslim again. However he has disowned the posts.
"The fact that immediately I'm sedated they could take my phone and post [on Facebook] the Islamic Shahada proved their real intent, and family members have been wailing that I'm bound for hell, so they had to make a move," he wrote.
The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) said Bala had declared before his relatives that he didn't believe in God. He was even taken to a doctor to see if he was mentally ill.
"His father is a politically powerful individual who has had him committed, against the advice of a medical professional. He is an Islamist supporter of Boko Haram," the IHEU said.
"The real reason for this outrageous and inhumane action is because Mubarak has renounced Islam and has openly declared himself to be an atheist."
IHEU communications officer Bob Churchill said that "a warped notion of family honour is the motivation to pressure Mubarak ... to conform to religious views that he simply doesn't hold".
A FreeMubarak twitter campaign and a petition have been set up to publicise the case and seek Bala's release.

Here Is The Complete List Of Banned Shisha Flavours

Following the banning of a total of 19 shisha flavours by the National Campaign Drug Abuse in conjunction with the Ministry of Health, some people may end up on the wrong side of the law considering that the ban took effect immediately. Since its better safe than sorry we went ahead and got you the whole list of what not to use seeing that the weekend is here.

The interesting bit though is that only 19 out of a hundred samples were banned, is it to say that the other samples are endorsed by the Mututho led organisation?
Anyway, here is the list of the banned substances
Al fakher strawberry flavor, Al fakher orange flavor, Al fakher two apples with mint flavor, Al fakher vanilla flavor, Al fakher two appeals flavor, Al fakher guava flavor, Al fakher orange with mint flavor, Al fakher orange flavor (positive for morphine) formulated kuber, formulated kuber (positive for morphine) nakhla molasses tobacco apple flavor, strong formulated shisha cocktail, medium formulated shisha cocktail, mild formulated shisha, Al fakher energy drink flavor, Al fakher packet strawberry flavor and al fakher chocolate with mint flavor are the banned flavors.
Apparently, the above mentioned flavours tested positive for heroin,cocaine, morphine and bhang thus the need to ban their consumption.

Saudi to expel foreigners who disrespect Ramadan – Two Saudis beheaded for raping minors

saudiRIYADH: Saudi authorities threatened yesterday to expel non-Muslim foreigners who eat, drink or smoke in public during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan, which begins this weekend. The interior ministry urged non-Muslims to “respect the feelings of Muslims by refraining from eating, drinking or smoking in public places, streets and at work.” “They are not excused for being non- Muslim,” said the statement carried by SPA state news agency, adding that “labor contracts stipulate respect for Muslim rites.” “Those who violate (that)… will face the necessary measures, including terminating work contracts and being deported,” the statement added. Oil-rich Saudi Arabia, which applies a strict version of sharia Islamic law, hosts more than nine million foreigners, mostly Asians. During Ramadan, Muslims fast from food from dawn to dusk and strive to be more pious and charitable. They are also required to abstain from drinking liquids, smoking and having sex. The fast is one of the five main religious obligations under Islam.
Two beheaded In another development, Saudi authorities beheaded Wednesday two nationals convicted of raping minors in two separate cases, in one of which the culprit killed the victim, the interior ministry said. Hamad bin Meshehen Al- Rashidi was found guilty of kidnapping and raping a seven-year-old boy before throwing him into a well and killing him, the ministry said in a statement carried by SPA state news agency. Rashidi was executed in Qassim province, north of Riyadh. In the other case, Issa bin Mohammed Al-Rashidi was condemned of kidnapping and raping a minor, and attempting to kidnap another. He was executed in the northern Hail province. The beheadings bring to 15 the number of death sentences carried out this year in the ultra-conservative kingdom. Saudi Arabia beheaded 78 people in 2013, according to an AFP count. Last year, the UN High Commission for Human Rights denounced a “sharp increase in the use of capital punishment” there since 2011. According to figures from rights group Amnesty International, the number of executions rose from 27 in 2010, including five, to 82 in 2011, including 28 foreigners. In 2012, the number of executions dipped to 79, among them 27 foreigners. Rape, murder, apostasy, armed robbery and drug trafficking are all punishable by death under Saudi Arabia’s strict version of Islamic sharia law.—Agencies

Lebanon’s Hezbollah ready to fight ISIS in Iraq

Shi'ite militia could seek to expand fight against Sunni militants from Syria into Iraq
A picture taken on November 11, 2009, shows Hezbollah fighters, holding up Lebanese flags and the yellow flag of the militant Shiite Muslim group, as they parade on the occasion of Martyr's Day in the southern suburbs of Beirut. (AFP PHOTO/RAMZI HAIDAR)
A picture taken on November 11, 2009, shows Hezbollah fighters holding up Lebanese flags and the yellow flag of the militant Shi’ite Muslim group as they parade on the occasion of Martyr’s Day in the southern suburbs of Beirut. (AFP Photo/Ramzi Haidar)
Beirut, Asharq Al-Awsat—Lebanese Shi’ite militia Hezbollah is ready to intervene in Iraq to confront Sunni militants, including the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
During a Hezbollah rally in Lebanon on Monday, Mohammad Raad, head of Hezbollah’s parliamentary bloc, said the Shi’ite militia is ready to “confront” ISIS and its backers at home and abroad.
“We know how to confront your plan in its own home, and how to topple all your delusions,” Raad said at a Hezbollah ceremony in Deir Al-Zahrani, according to the National News Agency.
Raad said that any party seeking to exploit ISIS to achieve their own goals would fail. “It will come back to you when our people in Iraq overthrow it,” he said.
Lebanese writer and political analyst Qasim Qasir, who has close ties to Hezbollah, affirmed that Hezbollah could seek to get involved in the fighting in Iraq, particularly as it is already fighting against ISIS in Syria.
“All options are on the table, and if the situation in the field evolved and required Hezbollah to get involved, then Hezbollah would be ready,” he said.
Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah announced that the Shi’ite militia is prepared to “sacrifice” for Iraq.
“Hezbollah is willing to sacrifice for Iraq five times as much as we sacrificed in Syria for the significantly more important holy places,” Lebanese media outlets quoted Nasrallah as saying this week.
“As long as we have the spiritual leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, nothing will happen to our holy places across the world. We will be where we are needed,” he added.
Qasir said that he expected any future Hezbollah intervention in Iraq to be limited to “elite forces, military experts and consultants,” adding that “the logistics of deploying Hezbollah fighters to Iraq would be more difficult than in the case of Syria, because Lebanon does not have borders with Iraq.”
Hisham Jaber, director of the Center for Middle East Studies, told Asharq Al-Awsat that he did not expect Hezbollah to get involved with the conflict in Iraq anytime soon for logistical reasons.
“Hezbollah is well aware that getting involved in Iraq will not be like entering Syria. It may send dozens of its cadres to organize a few units under the pretext of visiting holy places. As for sending large numbers, that is not possible except if the south of Iraq becomes threatened,” he added.

Qofkii ugu horeeyay oo Qaad lagu qabto UK oo 14-sanno lagu xukumayo

Qofkii ugu horeeyay oo Qaad lagu qabto UK oo 14-sanno lagu xukumayo iyo Soomaali badan oo naga codsatay inaan Duco iyo Mahad-Naq u dirno Mujaahid Abuukar Cawaale(Qaad-Diid)

 2014-06-26 18:24:35

Soomaaligii ugu horeeyay sidii 24-ka bishan Qaadka looga mamnuucay Dalka Ingriiska ayaa xabsi magaaladda London ku yaalay lagu xiray,kadib markii Gaari uu watay oo Qaad lagu qiyaasay 15-000-Pound uu doonayay inuu ka tahriibayo London una iib-geeyo Dal Yurub ku yaal.

Ninkan Soomaaliga oo noqonaya qofkii ugu horeeyay ee Qaad lagu xiro uu doonayay inuu ka ganacsado ayaa la filayaa in lagu xukumo 14-sanno oo Xarig ah.

Dhanka kale Soomaalidda Caalamka ku dhaqan ayaa u duceysay una Hambalyeeynaya Shaqsigii ka dambeeyay Qaadka UK in laga manuuco ee Abuukar Cawaale Qaad-Diid oo har iyo habeen muddo 9-sanno Jihaad ugu jiray inuu Qaadka-Daroogadda ah ka joojiyo Dalka Ingiriiska,Allana waa ku guuleeyay dadaalkiisii dheeraa ee Qodxaha-badnaa.

Soomaali badan oo Shacabkamedia la soo xiriirtay ayaa naga codsaday inaan Duco iyo Mahad-Naq ka gaarsiino Mujaahid Abuukar Cawaale Qaad-Diid oo Jihaadkii uu ku qaaday Qaadka Alle ku guuleysiiyay.


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